Aviation History / Wright Brothers




AOPA’s Guide to TSA’s Alien Flight Training/Citizenship Validation Rule

If you are giving or receiving flight training in an aircraft weighing less than 12,500 pounds, whether you are a U.S. citizen or alien, TSA’s alien flight training/citizenship validation rule affects you. TSA’s rule was initially issued in 2004, and TSA has clarified the rule several times since then as a result of AOPA’s advocacy. This page contains links to up-to-date, easy to understand information, customized to the various scenarios present in the rule.



Aircraft Operational Limitations

Aviation: Accident Database & Synopses


The NTSB aviation accident database contains information from 1962 and later about civil aviation accidents and selected incidents within the United States, its territories and possessions, and in international waters. Generally, a preliminary report is available online within a few days of an accident. Factual information is added when available, and when the investigation is completed, the preliminary report is replaced with a final description of the accident and its probable cause. Full narrative descriptions may not be available for dates before 1993, cases under revision, or where NTSB did not have primary investigative responsibility.

The following information is available:

·  New Database Query - with XML and CSV extract capabilities; see the general instructions and data dictionary

·  Database Query - interactive search capability for the NTSB database, updated daily; see the general instructions before using the form for the first time.

·  Monthly lists - accidents sorted by date, updated daily.

·  Investigations Nearing Completion - List of investigations with estimated dates of publishing probable cause.

·  Downloadable datasets - one complete dataset for each year beginning from 1982, updated monthly in Microsoft Access 95 MDB format; this site also provides weekly "change" updates and complete documentation.

·  GILS record - complete description of the accident database, including definition of "accident" and "incident".

·  FAA incident database - complete information about incidents, including those not investigated by NTSB, is provided by the Federal Aviation Administration.

·  Data & Information Products - lists other sources of information about aviation accidents, including publications, dockets, and press releases


Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (PHAK)


The Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge provides basic knowledge that is essential for pilots. This handbook introduces pilots to the broad spectrum of knowledge that will be needed as they progress in their pilot training. Except for the Code of Federal Regulations pertinent to civil aviation, most of the knowledge areas applicable to pilot certification are presented. This handbook is useful to beginning pilots, as well as those pursuing more advanced pilot certificates.



Aviation Security


Now more than ever, security has become part of general aviation on every level of flying or flight training. On this page, AOPA offers pilots an easy way to find the security resources they need for each portion of their flight and also offers information on AOPA’s advocacy efforts.



CFIT and Collision Avoidance


Safety Pilot Articles on Controlled Flight into Terrain




Terrain Avoidance Plan (TAP)


This section provides night VFR pilots or pilots in areas of less-than-good visibility with a procedure to avoid Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). Plan the enroute portion of your flight to be at or above the altitudes shown below to avoid terrain or towers. Remember: Ceilings must be at least 500 feet above your cruising altitude when in Class E airspace.




Mountains, Darkness, Low Ceilings


Flying in mountainous terrain can be challenging. So can flying at night or under a low ceiling. When all three are combined, heightened situational awareness is imperative.




Effective Teaching Methods


FAA Aviation Instructors Handbook


Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or understanding of a subject or skill through education, experience, practice, or study. A change of behavior results from learning. To successfully bring about learning, the instructor must know why people act the way they do, how people learn, and then use this understanding to teach. The study of applied educational psychology underlies the information and theories that are discussed. To be an effective instructor, knowledge of human behavior, basic human needs, the defense mechanisms humans use that prevent learning, as well as how adults learn is essential for organizing student activities and promoting a productive learning experience for students.

-Aviation Instructors Handbook, pg 1-2


AOPA Flight Training: CFI Tips

Do you need to review recommended logbook endorsements? Have a question about the presolo written test? Need a copy of FAA Form 8710, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application? Looking for back issues of the Air Safety Institute's Instructor Report newsletter? Access these documents and more.




FAA Regulations


Certification: Pilots and Flight and Ground Instructors (AC 61-65)






The FAA/Industry Training Standards (FITS) program is a partnership between FAA, Industry, and Academia designed to enhance general aviation safety. This is accomplished by developing flight training programs that are more convenient, more accessible, less expensive, and more relevant to today’s users of the National Airspace System.




Pilot Deviations


Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) Database






The FAA has a great website full of information for pilots. Whether you are just starting out, or have been flying for years, there is information for everyone.




Weather Links


Aviation Weather Center


The Aviation Weather Center delivers consistent, timely and accurate weather information for the world airspace system. We are a team of highly skilled people dedicated to working with customers and partners to enhance safe and efficient flight.




National Weather Service (NWS)


The NWS provides "weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, and 122 local weather forecast offices (WFOs).




University Corporation for Atmospheric Research


UCAR serves as a hub for research, education, and public outreach for the atmospheric and Earth system science community. We manage the National Center for Atmospheric Research and UCAR Community Programs on behalf of the National Science Foundation and the university community. Our headquarters are in Boulder, Colorado.

UCAR's mission is to

•support, enhance, and extend the capabilities of the university community, nationally and internationally

•understand the behavior of the atmosphere and related systems and the global environment

•foster the transfer of knowledge and technology for the betterment of life on Earth






Since 1996, Intellicast.com has provided expert weather information to weather savvy users. With the most technically advanced site-specific weather forecasting system in the world today, the result of a multi-million dollar research project, Intellicast.com delivers site-specific forecasts for 60,000 sites in the U.S. and around the globe. From detailed local forecasts to hurricane tracks, severe weather warnings to international conditions, Intellicast.com has the active weather tools business professionals and outdoor enthusiast have come to rely on, consistently making us one of the top ten weather sites on the Internet.






NOAA is an agency that enriches life through science. Our reach goes from the surface of the sun to the depths of the ocean floor as we work to keep citizens informed of the changing environment around them.

From daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings and climate monitoring to fisheries management, coastal restoration and supporting marine commerce, NOAA’s products and services support economic vitality and affect more than one-third of America’s gross domestic product. NOAA’s dedicated scientists use cutting-edge research and high-tech instrumentation to provide citizens, planners, emergency managers and other decision makers with reliable information they need when they need it.






The intent of this weather site is to provide a complete source of graphical weather information. This is intended to satisfy the needs of the weather professional, but can be a tool for the casual user as well.

The graphics and data are displayed as a meteorologist would expect to see. For the novice user, there are detailed explanation pages to guide them through the various plots, charts and images.

The data on this site are provided from the National Weather Service via the NOAAPORT satellite data service. All the images are generated using the Weather Processor (WXP) analysis package which is available from Unisys.




The Weather Channel




The Aviation Digital Data Service


The Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) makes available to the aviation community text, digital and graphical forecasts, analyses, and observations of aviation-related weather variables. ADDS is a joint effort of NCAR Research Applications Program (RAP), Global Systems Division (GSD) of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Aviation Weather Center (AWC).



The National Weather Association


“Connecting Operational Meteorologists in Pursuit of Excellence in Weather Forecasting, Communication and Service.”






AVweb is your internet source for the latest Aviation news and Aviation current events.






This web site is maintained by professional CFIs who teach industry leading Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics (FIRCs) nationwide.  We use this site as a tool in our classrooms and provide it to you as a service to the flight training industry.  You will find several subject areas listed above that you can quickly and easily explore. We currently link to over 100 sites that are of interest to the CFI. Just click on a subject area and check it out!




NASA airfoil simulation program


With this software you can investigate how an aircraft wing produces lift by changing the values of different factors that affect lift.

FoilSim II is an early version of the FoilSim family of interactive simulations. The different versions of FoilSim require different levels of knowledge of aerodynamics, experience with the package, and familiarty with computer technology. The most recent (July, 2010) version of FoilSim is FoilSim III. This web page contains the on-line student version of FoilSim II. It includes an on-line user's manual which describes the various options available in the program and includes hyperlinks to pages in the Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics describing the math and science of airfoils.




NOTAM publications


This website hosts the electronic version of the printed publication Notices to Airmen, which is published every 28 days. The latest two editions of the publication appear here.